04 Dec Names,Titles and Patronyms of Imam Mahdi(a.t.f.s) And Their Reasons
1- ‘Ilal al-Sharā’e‘: On the authority of al-Thumāli: I asked al-Bāqir, blessings of Allah be unto him, “O’ son of the Messenger of Allah, aren’t all of you Establishers (Qā’imīn) of the Truth?” He said, “Indeed so.” I asked him then, “Why has al-Qā’im has been named ‘the Establisher’ (al-Qā’im)?” He said, “When my forefather Husain, may Allah bless him, was killed, angels wailed to Allah, the Exalted, and cried and whimpered. They said, ‘Our Lord, our Master, are You going to ignore people who killed Your chosen friend and the progeny of Your chosen and selected friend from Your creation?’ Allah, the Exalted, revealed to them, ‘Relax my angels. By My Honor and My Majesty, I will take revenge from them, even if it be after a while.’ Then Allah, the Exalted, manifested the Imams from the progeny of Husain (a.s) which made the angels happy. They saw one of them standing (qā’im), offering salāth. Allah, the Exalted, said, ‘Through that Standing one (al-Qā’im) I shall avenge from them.’”
2- ‘Ilal al-Sharā’e‘: ‘Amr Ibn Shamir narrates from Jābir: A man came to Abu Ja‘far (a.s) while I was present there, and said, “May Allah have mercy on you. Take these five hundred dirhams and spend them in their appropriate venues, for they are the zakāt of my wealth.” “Rather, you take them and spend them on your neighbors, orphans and the needy and amongst your Muslim brothers,” replied the Imam. “This will happen when our Qā’im rises, for he will distribute equally and establish equity in the creation of the All-Merciful, amongst their virtuous and their vice. Whoever obeys him, he has obeyed Allah, and whoever disobeys him, he disobeys Allah. He has been called al-Mahdi, because he will guide to a hidden affair, bringing out the Torah and the rest of books of Allah from a cave in Antakiya. He will issue verdicts amongst the followers of the Torah according to the Torah, and amongst the followers of the Evangel according to the Evangel, and amongst the followers of the Zabūr according to the Zabūr, and amongst the followers of the Qur’ān according to the Qur’an.All riches and wealth will come to him, be they beneath the earth or over it, and he will say to people, ‘Come to the riches for which you forsook your relatives, shed bloods, and committed acts forbidden by Allah.’ He will dispense wealth in a way no one has done before.” Abu Ja‘far said, “The Messenger of Allah (a.s) said, ‘He is a man from me. His name is like mine. Allah will protect me through him. He will act on my conduct and fill the earth with equity and justice and light as it will be filled with oppression, inequity, and vice.’”
Explanation: “This will happen” refers to the imperativeness of submitting zakāth to the Imam. “So he will issue verdicts amongst the followers of the Torah according to the Torah,” does not contradict the coming narrations asserting there will remain no one but he will accept Islam, since this can be interpreted on the grounds that he will reason to them from their books, or will issue verdicts and judgments as such in the beginnings before the rise of his rule and the manifestation of his truth. “Allah will protect me through him” means Allah protects my right and my reverence with respect to him; so He will aide him and succor him. Or it may mean that Allah will make him such that people will infer his right and his reverence for his grandfather.
3- Ma‘āni al-Akhbār: Al-Qā’im has been named the Rising/Standing One (Qā’im), because he will rise after the oblivion of his name.
4- Ikmāl al-Dīn: Al-Saqar Ibn Dalaf says, I heard Abu Ja‘far Muhammad Ibn ‘Ali al-Redhā (a.s) say, “The Imam after me is my son; his command is my command; his word is my word; and obedience to him is obedience to me. Imamate after him belongs to his son al-Hasan; his command is his father’s command; his word is his father’s word; and obedience to him is obedience to his father.” Then he became silent, so I said, “O’ Son of the Messenger of Allah, then who is the Imam after al-Hasan?” He cried very profusely and then said, “After al-Hasan (a.s) is his son, the Establisher of the Truth (al-Qā’im bil-Haqq), the Awaited Savior.” I asked him, “O’ Son of the Messenger of Allah, and why has he been named al-Qā’im?” He said, “Because he will rise after the oblivion of his name and the apostasy of the majority of the believers in his Imamate.” Then I asked, “And why is he named al-Muntadhar (the Awaited)?” He said, “Because the days of his occultation will be many and its time will be long, with the sincere ones waiting his rise and the doubters denying it, and the deniers ridiculing it. There will be many predictors then of the time of his rise. The rushers will go to annihilation and the submitters will be rescued.”
5- Al-Ghaiba of Sheikh Tusi: Al-Kulaini narrates from Abu Muhammad (a.s) that when the Hujja was born, the Imam said, “The oppressors assumed that they will kill me in order to discontinue this succession. How did they see the might of Allah!” He named him al-Mu’ammal (the one in whom hopes rest).
6- Al-Ghaiba of Sheikh Tusi: Abu Sa‘īd al-Khurāsāni says, I said to Abu ‘Abdillah (a.s), “Is the Mahdi and the Qā’im the same?”
He said, “Yes.”
I asked, “For what reason has been named the Mahdi?”
He said, “Because he will be guided to every hidden matter. And he is named al-Qā’im because he will rise after his name dies. He will establish a mighty enterprise.”
7- Al-Irshād: Muhammad Ibn ‘Ajalān narrates from Abu ‘Abdillah (a.s), “When the Qā’im rises, he will call people to Islam anew and will guide them to an order that is worn out and the masses have led astray from it. The Qā’im has been named the Mahdi because he will lead to an order that is led astray from and he is named al-Qā’im for his rise with the Truth.”
8- Tafsīr of Furāt Ibn Ibrāhim: Ja‘far Ibn Muhammad al-Farāzi narrates through his chain of narration from Abu Ja‘far (a.s) in reference to the Divine words, Whosoever is killed innocently, We have assigned to his heir the authority, he said, “This is Husain.” So he may not exceed in killing and he is Mansūr (helped, assisted, and aided), the Imam said, “Allah has named the Mahdi al-Mansūr as he has been named Ahmad, Muhammad, and Mahmūd, and as Jesus has been named al-Masih.”
9- Kashf al-Ghumma: Al-Qāsim Ibn ‘Uday says, It is said that the patronym of al-Khalaf al-Sālih (The Virtuous Heir) is Abu al-Qāsim and he has two names.